This new found confidence in Europe is in direct contrast to – and probably a consequence of - the dysfunctional and chaotic policy stances issuing from the Trump administration. Lacking any actual policy toward Iran, Trump’s aim appears simply to be as disruptive as possible. In contrast, the European Union has a clearly stated position and has now signalled its intention to take the lead in diplomatic talks aimed at getting Iran engaged in changes to its human rights behaviour and military strategies.